Robots as companions: Are we ready?

Nao

Nao

Some people on Earth seem to think so. In fact, they believe in the concept so much, they are actually building the world's first personal robot that can read & respond to human emotions. A collaboration between French robotics firm, Aldebaran, and Softbank mobile from Japan. You may already know one of Aldebaran's existing robots, Nao. The new robot is called Pepper, is due to launch in Japan in February 2015, and is priced at 198,000 Yen. Using today's exchange rates, that's approximately $1,681 and £1,074, although only the Japanese launch has been confirmed for now. Pepper may be sold in the USA through Sprint stores at some point. The notion of a robot in your home that can interact with you, and even tell you a joke if you're feeling sad, attracted my curiosity. So much so, that in September 2014, I hopped on a train from London to Paris. 

Me & Pepper in Paris

Me & Pepper in Paris

Why Paris? Well, the world's first home robot store opened in Paris this summer, called Aldebaran Atelier, and they had Pepper in the store. You can't buy any of the robots in the store just yet, it's more a place to come and learn about these robots. 

So what's Pepper like? You have to bear in mind that the version I interacted with in Paris is not the final version, so the features I saw are not fully developed, especially the aspects of recognising who you are, and getting to know you and your needs. The 3 minute video below shows some of the interaction I had. For now, Pepper understands English, French and Japanese. 

A bit more about how Pepper works. In the final version, Pepper will be able to understand 5 basic emotional expressions of the face: smiling, frowning, surprise, anger & sadness. Pepper will also read the tone of your voice, the verbage used, as well as non verbal communication such a tilting your head. So for example, if you're feeling sad, Pepper may suggest you go out. If you're feeling happy, Pepper may sing a song and do a dance for you (more on that later). According to a Mashable article, "Pepper has an 'emotional engine' and cloud based artificial intelligence". The article also states, "The cloud AI will allow Pepper to share learnings with cloud-based algorithms and pull down additional learning, so that its emotional intuition and response can continually improve. It's either a technological breakthrough or the most terrifying robot advancement I've ever heard of."

Some facts and figures for you; 

  • 4 feet tall, and weighs 61 lbs/28kg
  • 12 hour battery life - and automatically returns to charging station when battery is low
  • 3D camera which senses humans and their movements up to 3 metres away

In the press kit I was given at the store, it's stated that "Pepper's number one intention is about being kind and friendly. He has been engineered to meet not functional but emotional needs." 

It's not just speech and movement that Pepper responds to, it's also touch. There are sensors on the upper part of his head, upper part of his hands and on the tablet attached to his chest. Pepper may be talking to you, and if you place your hand on his head, the way that you would with a child, Pepper will go quiet. Although, when I tried it, Pepper responded by saying something about sensing someone was scratching his head! 

The creators anticipate Pepper being used to care for the elderly and for baby sitting. What are your thoughts? Do YOU envisage leaving your elderly parent or young child with Pepper for company whilst you do some chores or dash to the supermarket? I told Shirley Ayres, Co-Founder of the Connected Care Network, about Pepper. Her response was; "I'd prefer a robot companion to 15 minutes of care by a worker on minimum wage struggling to provide quality care on a zero hour contract."

Given aging populations, and the desire for many to grow old in their own home, rather than an institution, are household companion robots the answer to this challenge? As technology such as Pepper evolves, will a robot at home be the solution to increasingly lonely societies? Will we really prefer the company of a household robot versus another human being? Will we end up treating the purchase of Pepper the same way we treat the purchase of an Ipad? Will your children buy you a Pepper so they don't have to visit you as often as you'd like? The CEO of Aldebaran, Bruno Maisonnier, believes they will sell millions of these robots. Apparently, they'll be able to make a profit from the sales of robot related software and content. Apps for robots?

Pepper does have all sorts of sensors so it can understand humans as well as understand the environment it's operating within. I understand it will collect data, but it's not clear to me, at this stage, exactly what would be collected or shared. Just because Pepper seems kind and friendly, doesn't mean we should not consider the risks and benefits associated with any data it collects on us, our behaviours and intentions. There could be immense benefits from a robot that can 24 hours a day remind an older person when to take their medications, and potentially collect data on when doses are being skipped and why.

An Institute of Medicine panel has just recommended that "Physicians should collect more information about patients' behaviour and social environment in their electronic health records." Some of the information the panel recommends collecting include "whether they are experiencing depression; their social connections and sense of social isolation." Is technology such as Pepper the most effective route to collecting that data? Do we want a world where our household robot sends data to our doctor on how often we feel sad and lonely? Perhaps for those of us too afraid to reach out for help and support, that's a good thing?

My brief interaction in Paris with Pepper was fun and enjoyable, a glimpse into a possible future. With it's childlike gestures and ability to monitor and respond to our emotions, could we as humans one day form emotional attachments to household robots? Here is the video of Pepper wanting to play some music for me in the Paris store. 

One does wonder how the introduction of these new robots might impact jobs? What does technology such as Pepper mean for human carers? A recent report from Deloitte forecasts that 30% of jobs in London are at high risk from automation over the next 20 years. It's low paid, low skill jobs that are most at risk. Microsoft is trying out a different robot called K5 from Knightscope as security guards in their Silicon Valley campus. In Japan, Pepper has been used by Softbank to conduct market research with customers in a Tokyo store. Nestle is planning to use Pepper to sell coffee machines in 1,000 of it's stores across Japan by the end of 2015. Here is the video showing how Pepper might work in selling to consumers in Nestle's stores. 

Now, some of us may dismiss this robot technology as crude and clumsy, with little or no potential to make a significant impact. I personally think it's amazing that we've reached this point, and like any technology, it won't stand still. Over time, it will improve and become cheaper. We are at a turning point, whether we like it or not. Does Pepper signify the dawn of a new industry, or will these household robots be rejected by consumers? How are household robots treated by the law? Do we need to examine how our societies function rather than build technology such as Pepper? Are we becoming increasingly disconnected from ourselves that we need Pepper in our homes to connect with ourselves as humans? Does the prospect of having a robot like Pepper in your own home with your family, excite you or frighten you?

Given the intense pressure to reduce costs in health & social care, it would be foolish to dismiss Pepper completely. So in the future, will we also see companion robots like Pepper stationed in hospitals and doctor's offices too? Can personal robots that connect with our emotions change how we 'deliver' and 'receive' care?

[Disclosure: I have no commercial ties to any of the individuals or organisations mentioned in the post]

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Robots in health & social care: Terrifying or marvellous?

I appreciate it's a tough time for doctors, facing increased pressure and scrutiny, from both payers and patients. They work so hard and make so many sacrifices along the way in order to practice medicine. Add to the mix that outsiders are developing technologies which may impact the delivery of care. Rock Health estimates that people with doctoral or medical degrees make up fewer than 20 percent of all CEOs of funded digital health companies. How will the established healthcare system react to outsiders who are 'disrupting' existing processes and procedures? Will they protest on the streets in the same manner as the taxi drivers across Europe last week, who are upset about the impact of consumers using the Uber app on their industry?

The perceived threat

The relentless progress of technology can be frightening. When I have spoken before about the possibility that one day doctors could become unemployed due to advancing technology, I've observed a whole range of reactions. When I even discuss the possibility of doctors being replaced by robots powered by artificial intelligence, many take the view that this is a preposterous idea. How dare we imagine a world where human doctors are replaced by machines & algorithms?

Now, if this was such a preposterous idea, with zero chance of every occurring in the future, the system would just ignore it, right?

In the USA, National Nurses United launched a campaign to alert the public to the dangers of hospitals using algorithms and unproven medical technologies. The video [below] they have put together is actually very thought provoking. The fact that they've invested time, effort and money into this campaign suggests to me that do indeed feel threatened by the potential impact of advancing technology. 

Depending upon how you view the future, robot nurses & doctors could be just a few decades away or unlikely to ever happen. Can we state with any certainty which path the development and adoption of robots will take in healthcare? I don't believe so. As AstraZeneca state on their website, "Predicting the future of healthcare is virtually impossible". It's sensible to consider all the possible future scenarios, not just the scenarios we feel comfortable with. 

One of the drivers behind exploring robots in healthcare is to understand if it could reduce medical errors. A hospital in the UK has brought in a robot to combat "serious" human errors in handing out prescriptions. 

Who is pushing the boundaries?

If you want to get a glimpse into the future of robots in healthcare, take a look at Japan. A country with the highest proportion of citizens aged over 65 on the planet. They are also leaders in robotic technology. For the Japanese government, their focus will be on the use of robots in nursing care. In 2020, Japan will host the Olympics, and is possibly going to host 'Robot Olympics' at the same time. Given that Dementia is increasingly challenging for healthcare systems globally, are robots the future of eldercare? Bristol Robotic Laboratory in the UK believe their robot, Molly could be part of that future. The video is truly eye opening. 

Softbank in Japan plan to sell a robot called Pepper, which is claimed to be the first robot that can recognise human emotions and respond to them. 

What does all of this mean?

The recent documentary, Power to the patient, opens with these sentences, "The relationship between doctors and patients is about to change dramatically. Modern technology enables patients to become their own personal healers, with the doctor as advisor".

Now, it may be the case that human doctors & nurses never become unemployed. However, if technology continues to advance at the same pace, what patients want from doctors & nurses may change. Even though the the United States’ National Robotics Initiative (NRI) seeks to integrate robotics to assist rather than replace nurses and physicians, the NRI’s language doesn’t specifically forbid healthcare organizations in the U.S. from seeking to completely replace nurses and doctors. 

What will systems under extreme cost pressure do if one day robots can do much of what doctors & nurses do today? Will the doctors who refuse to work with new technology have fewer opportunities? Will the successful doctors & nurses of the future be the ones that can work with robots & algorithms to deliver the care which serves patients' needs? What would training at medical school look like? How might the relationship between patients, doctors and nurses change? How will the power dynamics change? If there is conflict in decision making, whose verdict will reign supreme? Human or Robot? What if patients get emotionally attached to a robot caring for them at home 24/7? Can robots truly care for us?

Whilst people happily buy modern cars which are assembled by robots, would those same people feel comfortable if some aspects of health & social care were delivered by robots? Do you agree with Peter Diamandis, who envisions a future where patients prefer a robot rather than a human surgeon to perform cardiac surgery? NASA are developing a robot which could one day perform life saving surgeries on astronauts in space. 

Fact from fiction

I attended an event at Nesta in London last week, "Humanising the robot society", which I really enjoyed. In a few weeks, I'm attending an event at Policy Exchange in London, "Rise of the Robots: What skills will we need in the future economy and how do we get them?". What's fascinating is that the second event has David Willetts MP, Minister for Universities and Science as the first speaker. If robots truly aren't going to impact our lives, why would these two high profile organisations waste their time even discussing these possible scenarios? 

We must be mindful that it's easy for scientists to make grand claims about the future of Artificial Intelligence and robots. It's hard for members of the public to distinguish facts from hype. How do we have informed discussion? Perhaps the events in London are the way forward?

Technology, as always, can serve to both improve and undermine the quality of our lives. I believe the development and adoption of robots could have serious ramifications for everyone in society over the next few decades, not just those in health & social care. For some the rise of the robots seems terrifying, for others it seems marvellous. What's your view? 

[Disclosure: I have no commercial ties with the individuals and organisations mentioned in this post]

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